Iraqi border forces opened fire on a group of kolbars in the border area of Shushmi in Paveh, Kermanshah Province, on 22 January, killing kolbar Houshyar Mahmoudi and wounding another whose identity remains unknown.

The Kurdistan Human Rights Network (KHRN) has learned that the Iraqi border guards initiated the gunfire without any prior warning, targeting the kolbars at close range.

Mahmoudi, a father of three from the village of Shushmi in Paveh, who was not carrying any goods, was shot in the head and died instantly.

In recent days, nine kolbars from the cities of Ravansar, Javanrud and Marivan have been arrested by Iraqi border guards and released after being tortured and having their heads shaved.

A video of conversations between these kolbars shared on social media has sparked widespread public outrage.